Task Analysis of Laparoscopic Procedures

Task analysis of Laparoscopic Appendicectomy
General Surgery / Aug 27th, 2017 4:51 pm     A+ | a-
DR.KEVIN J CHIRAMEL
DM WIMS , MEPPADI WAYANAD.

Task analysis  for laparoscopic appendicectomy     
 
A)  Surgical team:

1) Surgeon 2) Anaesthetist 3)camera person  4)Scrub nurse

B) Instruments required

1. Laparoscopic tower with insufflator, Light source, HD camera with 30 degree telescope, bipolar machine, unipolar machine
2. Ports: One 10mm reusable port with 5mm reducer, two 5mm ports
3. Suction and irrigation
4. Basic laparoscopic appendectomy set with Marilyn, semi-atraumatic graspers, hook, scissors, harmonic,.
5 endo loop , size 11 blade, 10mm syringe and  skin staples

C) Method of anaesthesia: General Anaesthesia

D) Setting of the equipment

1. Pre-set pressures of the insufflator to 12–15mmHg 
2. White balancing with white gauze and focusing at about 10cm range

E). Position of patient:

1.
Supine position in Trendelenburg position and 15 degree tilt to the left

F. Position of the surgical team and equipment:

1. Surgeon on the left, in line with target (appendix) and monitor, 5 times diagonal length of the screen
2..Assistant on the right of the surgeon
3. Sister on the left of the surgeon
4. Anaesthetist on the usual position, cephalad

G). Attainment of pneumoperitoneum and introduction of ports

1. Surgeon makes a stab wound with size 11 blade at the inferior crease of umbilicus
2. Surgeon check the spring of veress needle as well as patency with saline in 10mm syringe
3. Surgeon grab entire thickness of the infra-umbilical midline wall of abdomen
4. Veress needle pointing towards anus, perpendicular to entry point and 45 degrees to the supra-umbilical abdominal wall
5.. Surgeon advances the veress needle and feels 2 clicks (one on rectus sheath and one on peritoneum
6.. Surgeon carry out the injection/aspiration test and saline drop test with a 10mm syringe with saline, to confirm correct positioning of veress needle
7. Switch on the insufflator and monitor that the insufflator is confirming correct positioning of veress needle
8. Once pressure reached pre-set pressure, Surgeon uses size 11 blade to make a smiley skin incision in the infra umbilical crease, to fit a 10mm port. This can be pre-checked by placing a 10mm port for estimation of incision.
9. Surgeon insert the telescope and inspect the entire abdomen 
10. Surgeon reach out to the target organ (appendix), just about to touch it with tip of telescope, and trans-illuminate the anterior abdominal wall to delineate the site of the target. 
11. Surgeon uses baseball diamond concept to mark the position of the additional 5 mm ports
12. Surgeon uses the 11mm blade to make small incisions to fit the 5mm ports at the pre-marked sites as per Baseball diamond concept.
13. Surgeon inserts the 5mm ports under direct vision

H. Identification of Appendix:

. Surgeon finds the caecum and follow tinea coli to the base of appendix

I. Mesoappendix

1. With the help of the harmonic, making sure that the silicon jaw is towards important structures like bowel, the meso-appendix is coagulated and cut, while the left hand holds the appendix with atraumatic grasper
2. The meso-appendix is coagulated and cut up until the base of the appendix

J. Appendicectomy

1. with endoloop  and delivered into the abdomen through the 5mm port.
2. The appendix is delivered into the loop and the loop tightened at the base of the appendix with a knot pusher 
3. With the help of the harmonic, the appendix is sealed at about 0.5mm above the knot. There is no need for a second suture

K. Delivery of the appendix

1. A simple appendix can be delivered by grabbing the cut end with ovum forceps through 1mm port on the umbilical, under vision with the 5mm telescope
2. An inflamed, swollen, infected appendix can be delivered through the 10mm port in the umbilicus

L. Lavage of the abdomen: Eespecially in cases of complicated appendix is done, with 3 to 6L of saline needed in ruptured appendix

M. Placement of Drain in cases of ruptured appendix, by placing naso gastric tube through a separate stab incision on the right iliac fossa

N. Port Closure: The 10mm umbilical port facia is closed using a veress needle as a suture passer. 

O. Removal of Port: The two 5mm ports are removed under direct vision. The 10mm port is removed together with telescope

Q. Port wound closure: The 10mm port wound closed with staples
 
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