Task Analysis of Laparoscopic and Robotic Procedures

Task Analysis For Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
General Surgery / Oct 4th, 2017 8:56 am     A+ | a-
Cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed abdominal surgical procedures, and in developed countries many are performed laparoscopically. As an example, 90 percent of cholecystectomies are performed laparoscopically. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the "gold standard" for the surgical treatment of gallstone disease. This procedure results in less postoperative pain, better cosmesis, shorter hospital stays and disability from work than open cholecystectomy
  1. Patient put under general anaesthesia .
  2. Patient preparation and positioning.
  3. Surgeon , patient and monitor should be at coaxial alignment.
  4. Establishment of the access by Veress needle.
  5. Gas insufflation with CO2.
  6. Ports insertion.
  7. Surgical steps.
  8. Specimen retrieval.
  9. Ports closure .
  10. Deflation  of the abdomen.
  11. Skin closure.
  12. Patient  extubation.
  • General Anaesthesia :
  1. Patient should be under GA.
  2. Position the patient in supine position.
  3.  Availability of the following  instruments should be checked :
    1. Access instruments : Blade 11,  Veress needle, two 10 mm ports, two 5 mm ports.
    2. Optical instruments: 10 mm telescope, camera, light cable.
    3. Operating instruments : Maryland, Traumatic grasper, semi traumatic grasper, endoclips, Curved endoscissor, Vicryl suture, endobag.
    4. Energy  instruments : Harmonic , hook connected with monopolar.
  4. Check the function of the monitor, insufflator ,light source, amount of gas cylinder, harmonic setting frequency between 3-5, and check the monopolar function for cutting and coagulation.
  • Patient and surgeon Positioning :
  1. Table height should be adjusted to the surgeon height (0.49 X surgeon height).
  2. Patient should be prepped form the nipples to the mid-thighs. Patient draping and cable arrangement.
  3. The surgeon should stand at the left side of the patient, The monitor at the right side of the patient,1st assistant  should be at left side of the surgeon and the 2nd assistant at the right side of the patient.
  4. The monitor, target organ and surgeon should be aligned in coaxial alignment.
  5. The monitor should be at 15 degree below the surgeon eyes and 5 times of its diagonal diameter away from the surgeon.
  • Access and Insufflation:
  1. Umbilicus to be hold With Allys Forceps, then  using  blade 11, 3 mm incision to be made  at the inferior crease of the umbilicus.
  2. Size 10 Veress needle insertion : start with checking the veress needle  function and patency  by flushing it with NS  and hearing 2 clicks of the valve .
  3.  The length of the needle which should be inserted should be 4cm + abdominal wall thickness .Veress Needle  should be hold as dart at 45 degree , left the abdominal wall in a way that veress needle should be perpendicular to it and pointed toward the anus. Will feel  2 areas of resistance , should be intrabdominal after the you passed the 2nd area .
  4. Check the position of the Veress needle by 3 ways:
    1. Flush the needle with NS which should go easily .
    2. Aspirate , nothing should come .
    3. Hanging drop test:  drops of NS are placed at the cannula of the needle , should sink  when  lower abdominal wall is lifted.
        5. Qudrimanometric 40 litres Insufflator to be on, the following setting should be applied:
                  a. Set pressure 12 and flow 1 L / min.
        6. The gas tube  should be flushed with CO2 before attaching it the veress needle.
        7. The gas tube to be attached to the veress needle and start insufflation , making sure that the abdomen is tympanic and                   distended equally in all quadrants. Insufflators parameters should be observed carefully during insufflation .
        8. Once the actual pressure reach to the set pressure of 12 mmHg , Veress needle will be removed.
        9. At the same umbilical  inferior crease , Using 10 mm cannula , the area is marked for the incision, then the incision                            increased to 10 mm, smiley incision  .
       10. The vetelinointestinal tract is opened and dilated with artery forceps .
       11. 10mm port is inserted through the tract and attached to the gas tube.
       12. 30 degree Camera to be adjusted in terms of white balance , and focus .
       13. Camera to be inserted and check for any bleeding, adhesion or bowel injury.
  • Working ports insertion :
  1. Based on baseball diamond concept working ports sites are determined and inserted under direct visualization as follows:
    1. 10 mm port at the epigastric area at the line between xiphisternum and umbilicus. This port should be inserted left to the falcifurm ligament but piercing the membranous part  and should come out right to it.
    2. 5 mm port at right  mid clavicular line, around 2 cm below costal margin.
    3. 5 mm port at the right mid axillary line, around 5-8 cm below the costal margin.
  • Surgical steps :
  1. Position the patient in left lateral, head up.
  2. Through the lateral 5mm port, Using the traumatic grasper, the fundus of the gallbladders should be retracted upward and toward right shoulder of the patient.
  3. The gall bladder is retracted anteriomedialy, With help of the grasper the Hartmans pouch exposed, all adhesions are released with blunt dissection or Harmonic use.
  4. The Gallbladder infundibulum  is retracted toward the left shoulder so the anterior  peritoneum is exposed.
  5. Making sure that we are above the Rouviere’s Sulcus, dissection to be started at the anterior peritoneum  at the Hartmans pouch level using the harmonic.
  6. Then the  infundibulum is retracted to the right side, anterior lateral posterior peritoneum is exposed and  dissected.
  7. By this time a window is created below the infundibulum connecting the anterior and posterior openings.
  8. The critical view of safety (cystic duct, CHD and  edge of the liver) is viewed, Cystic duct is identified, dissected and isolated from the artery. Always avoid over traction , to prevent CBD injury.
  9. Using Vicryl suture with Mishras knot, cystic duct is ligated near the CBD . Moreover , clips are applied at the distal end of the duct. Using the scissor, the cystic duct is cut between the clips and the knot.
  10. Cystic artery is identified and clipped using the endoclips by applying 2 clips proximally  and 1 clip distally.  The artery cut using scissor.
  11. Using the Harmonic, the gallbladder is dissected from the its bed in the liver surface by cutting the anterior and posterior peritoneum.
  12. Dissection continued till the fundus of the gallbladder, till it is detached from the liver.
  13. The gallbladder bed is inspected for any bleeding and should be controlled by using fulguration by monopolar (using hook) .
  14. Using  endobag, the gallbladder is retrieved through the epigastric port.
  • Ports removal and closure:
  1. Under direct vision, 5 mm ports and epigastric port are removed.
  2. Gas insufflation is stopped, abdomen is deflated, The umbilicus port  is removed, facia is closed using Vicryl 0.
  3. All Skin incisions are closed using Vicryl or staplers.
Dr Nitish Kumar Yadav
May 26th, 2020 9:39 am
This is the best explanation of Task Analysis For Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy You're a amazing Teacher !!!! God bless you. Thanks you so much World Laparoscopic Training Institute also many thanks Dr. Mishra for this Article.
Dr. Rodrigo K. Hippal (South Africa)
May 26th, 2020 9:56 am
Dr. Mishra really you are a genius !!!!! your presentations are very simple and very interesting and can never be forgotten. Thanks for sharing excellent Task analysis of Laparoscopic for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.
Dr.R. Margerita
May 26th, 2020 10:03 am
Thanks for posting of Task Analysis For Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Dr. Mishra you are an one of the best teachers, Many things i have learn from you. your article are very simple and very interesting and useful for us.

Dr. Samuel Nedeem Badree
May 26th, 2020 10:13 am
Dr. Mishra your all presentation, video's Lecture are excellent. Really sir you are Awesome.... really i have no word nothing to say, am waiting for your next lecture and videos Thanks for posting of Task Analysis For Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.
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How to Perform and Implement Task Analysis of Laparoscopic and Robotic Procedures

Task analysis is a critical component of any complex surgical procedure, including laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. It involves breaking down the procedure into its constituent tasks, identifying the steps, skills, and cognitive processes required. Task analysis not only enhances the understanding of these intricate surgeries but also serves as a foundation for training, skill assessment, and continuous improvement in healthcare. In this essay, we will delve into how to conduct and implement task analysis for laparoscopic and robotic procedures.

Task Analysis of Laparoscopic Surgery

Understanding the Significance of Task Analysis

Before we explore the procedure for task analysis, it's essential to recognize why it is of paramount importance in the realm of surgery, particularly for laparoscopic and robotic procedures.

1. Enhanced Learning and Training: Task analysis helps in developing structured training programs. It breaks down complex procedures into manageable components, making it easier for trainees to learn and practice each step methodically.

2. Skill Assessment: By understanding the tasks and sub-tasks involved, it becomes possible to assess the competence of surgeons and surgical teams. This is crucial for ensuring patient safety and quality care.

3. Workflow Optimization: Task analysis can reveal inefficiencies in surgical workflows. Identifying these bottlenecks allows for process improvements, potentially reducing surgical times and enhancing outcomes.

4. Error Reduction: Recognizing potential points of error is vital for preventing surgical complications. Task analysis can highlight critical steps where errors are more likely to occur, leading to proactive measures to mitigate risks.

Procedure for Task Analysis of Laparoscopic and Robotic Procedures:

Task analysis for laparoscopic and robotic procedures involves several steps:

Step 1: Define the Surgical Procedure

Begin by clearly defining the surgical procedure you wish to analyze. Whether it's a laparoscopic cholecystectomy or a robotic prostatectomy, having a specific procedure in mind is essential.

Step 2: Gather Expert Input

Engage experts in the field, including experienced surgeons, nurses, and other surgical team members. Their input is invaluable in identifying and detailing the tasks involved.

Step 3: Identify the Tasks and Sub-Tasks

Break down the surgical procedure into tasks and sub-tasks. For instance, in a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, tasks could include trocar placement, camera insertion, gallbladder dissection, and suturing. Sub-tasks under "trocar placement" might involve choosing trocar sizes, making incisions, and inserting trocars.

Step 4: Sequence the Tasks

Establish the chronological order of tasks. Determine which tasks are dependent on others and identify any parallel processes. Sequencing tasks is essential for understanding the flow of the procedure.

Step 5: Define Task Goals and Objectives

For each task and sub-task, define the goals and objectives. What should be achieved in each step? For instance, in gallbladder dissection, the goal might be to safely detach the gallbladder from the liver while preserving nearby structures.

Step 6: Skill and Equipment Requirements

Specify the skills and equipment required for each task. Consider the level of expertise needed, such as basic laparoscopic skills or advanced robotic manipulation. Document the instruments and technology involved.

Step 7: Cognitive Processes

Identify the cognitive processes involved, such as decision-making, spatial orientation, and problem-solving. Understanding the mental aspects of surgery is critical for training and error prevention.

Step 8: Consider Variations and Complications

Acknowledge potential variations in the procedure and anticipate complications. How would the surgical team adapt if unexpected issues arise? Task analysis should encompass both the standard procedure and potential deviations.

Step 9: Develop Training and Assessment Tools

Use the task analysis results to create structured training modules. These modules should align with the identified tasks, objectives, and skill requirements. Additionally, design assessment tools to evaluate the competence of trainees and surgical teams.

Step 10: Continuous Improvement

Task analysis is not a one-time endeavor. Regularly revisit the analysis to incorporate new techniques, technology, and best practices. Continuous improvement is vital for staying at the forefront of surgical care.

Implementing Task Analysis Results:

Once task analysis is complete, it's crucial to implement the findings effectively:

1. Training Programs: Develop and deliver training programs based on the task analysis. These programs should encompass both simulation-based training and real-life surgical experience.

2. Skill Assessment: Use the assessment tools developed during task analysis to evaluate the skills of surgical teams. This can be done through structured evaluations and objective metrics.

3. Quality Improvement: Task analysis can reveal areas for process improvement. Work with the surgical team to implement changes that enhance efficiency and patient outcomes.

4. Error Prevention: Utilize the identified points of error to develop strategies for error prevention. This might involve checklists, preoperative briefings, and enhanced communication protocols.

5. Research and Innovation: Task analysis can also guide research efforts, leading to the development of new techniques and technologies that improve surgical procedures.

In conclusion, task analysis is an indispensable tool in understanding, teaching, and advancing complex surgical procedures such as laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. By meticulously dissecting each task and sub-task, identifying skill requirements, and considering cognitive processes, healthcare professionals can enhance patient safety, optimize surgical workflows, and continually improve the quality of surgical care. Task analysis is not merely an analytical exercise; it is a pathway to excellence in surgical practice.

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