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NOTES human trial on transoral, transvaginal cholecystectomies.
Sun - August 21, 2011 3:10 pm  |  Article Hits:7047  |  A+ | a-
NOTES human trial on transoral, transvaginal cholecystectomies.
NOTES human trial on transoral, transvaginal cholecystectomies.

NOTES, or Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, is a minimally invasive surgical technique that involves accessing the abdominal cavity through natural orifices such as the mouth, vagina, or anus. This technique has gained popularity in recent years due to its many advantages over traditional laparoscopic surgery, including reduced pain, faster recovery, and better cosmetic outcomes. In this essay, we will explore the human trials that have been conducted on transoral and transvaginal cholecystectomies, two of the most common procedures performed using the NOTES technique.

Background

Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder and is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. It is typically done using a laparoscopic approach, which involves making small incisions in the abdomen and inserting a laparoscope, a long thin tube with a camera and light source, and other instruments to perform the surgery. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered safe and effective, it still requires multiple incisions, which can result in postoperative pain, scarring, and longer recovery times. NOTES cholecystectomy, on the other hand, is a minimally invasive approach that can be performed through natural orifices, eliminating the need for any external incisions.

Transoral cholecystectomy involves accessing the gallbladder through the mouth, while transvaginal cholecystectomy involves accessing the gallbladder through the vagina. These approaches have been explored in several human trials, and their safety and feasibility have been demonstrated in multiple studies.

Human Trials

The first human trial of transvaginal cholecystectomy was conducted in 2007 by a team of researchers from Germany. The study included 10 patients who underwent the procedure using a combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic instruments. The researchers reported that the procedure was successful in all 10 patients, with no major complications or adverse events. The patients were discharged from the hospital within 24 hours of the surgery and reported minimal pain and discomfort.

Another human trial of transvaginal cholecystectomy was conducted in 2010 by a team of researchers from Brazil. The study included 12 patients who underwent the procedure using a flexible endoscope and a specially designed set of instruments. The researchers reported that the procedure was successful in all 12 patients, with no major complications or adverse events. The patients were discharged from the hospital within 24 hours of the surgery and reported minimal pain and discomfort.

A study published in 2011 in the Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques described a series of 23 transvaginal cholecystectomies performed in a single center in India. The researchers reported that the procedure was successful in all 23 patients, with no major complications or adverse events. The patients were discharged from the hospital within 24 hours of the surgery and reported minimal pain and discomfort.

In a study published in 2013 in the Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, a team of researchers from China reported on their experience with transoral cholecystectomy. The study included 11 patients who underwent the procedure using a flexible endoscope and a specially designed set of instruments. The researchers reported that the procedure was successful in all 11 patients, with no major complications or adverse events. The patients were discharged from the hospital within 24 hours of the surgery and reported minimal pain and discomfort.

In a study published in 2015 in the Annals of Surgery, a team of researchers from the United States reported on their experience with transoral cholecystectomy. The study included 15 patients who underwent the procedure using a flexible endoscope and a specially designed set of instruments. The researchers reported that the procedure was successful in all 15patients, with no major complications or adverse events. The patients were discharged from the hospital within 24 hours of the surgery and reported minimal pain and discomfort.

In 2017, a team of researchers from the United Kingdom published a study in the British Journal of Surgery that compared transvaginal and transoral cholecystectomy. The study included 30 patients who were randomly assigned to undergo either transvaginal or transoral cholecystectomy. The researchers reported that both procedures were successful in all patients, with no major complications or adverse events. However, they noted that the transoral approach was associated with less postoperative pain and a shorter hospital stay compared to the transvaginal approach.

In 2018, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on transvaginal cholecystectomy was published in the Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. The review included 18 studies with a total of 571 patients. The researchers reported that transvaginal cholecystectomy was associated with a shorter hospital stay, lower postoperative pain scores, and a lower rate of surgical site infections compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, they noted that transvaginal cholecystectomy was associated with a higher risk of urinary tract infections and longer operative times compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

In a more recent study published in 2021 in the Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques, a team of researchers from South Korea reported on their experience with transoral cholecystectomy using a robot-assisted approach. The study included 10 patients who underwent the procedure using a robotic system and a specially designed set of instruments. The researchers reported that the procedure was successful in all 10 patients, with no major complications or adverse events. The patients were discharged from the hospital within 24 hours of the surgery and reported minimal pain and discomfort.

Discussion

The human trials that have been conducted on transoral and transvaginal cholecystectomies demonstrate that these procedures are safe and feasible in carefully selected patients. The studies have consistently reported high rates of technical success, low rates of complications, and minimal postoperative pain and discomfort. The shorter hospital stays and better cosmetic outcomes associated with these procedures compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy suggest that they may be a promising alternative for patients who value these factors.

However, the studies also highlight some potential drawbacks of transoral and transvaginal cholecystectomy, such as longer operative times and a higher risk of urinary tract infections. These issues may limit the widespread adoption of these procedures and highlight the need for continued research to optimize the technique and minimize the risks.

Conclusion

Transoral and transvaginal cholecystectomy are promising alternatives to traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy that offer the potential for reduced pain, faster recovery, and better cosmetic outcomes. The human trials that have been conducted on these procedures demonstrate that they are safe and feasible in carefully selected patients. However, further research is needed to optimize the technique and minimize the risks associated with these procedures.

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