Frequently asked question about Minimal Access Surgery

Frequently Asked Questions about Laparoscopic Surgery
As such, there is no side effect due to laparoscopy but the following discomfort may happen.
  1. fatigue.
  2. a sore throat, due to breathing tube during surgery.
  3. discomfort at the site of an incision.
  4. abdominal bloating.
  5. shoulder or back pain from any remaining carbon dioxide within the abdomen, which can irritate the diaphragm.
You should contact your doctor if any of the following symptoms develop after having a laparoscopy:
  1. persistent or worsening pain after a few days;
  2. new abdominal pain;
  3. nausea or vomiting;
  4. fever;
  5. fainting or feel light-headed;
  6. redness, swelling, discharge or bleeding at the wound site(s); or.
  7. difficulty urinating.
There isn't a specific gallbladder removal diet that you should follow if you have this problem, but there are a few things you might consider. After laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery, some people develop frequent loose, watery stools. In most cases, the diarrhea lasts no more than a few weeks to a few months. 

First, it helps to understand why you're having diarrhea. Diarrhea after gallbladder removal seems to be related to the release of bile directly into the intestines. Normally, the gallbladder collects and concentrates bile, releasing it when you eat to aid the digestion of fat. When the gallbladder is removed, bile is less concentrated and drains more continuously into the intestines, where it can have a laxative effect.

The amount of fat you eat at one time also plays a role. Smaller amounts of fat are easier to digest, while larger amounts can remain undigested and cause gas, bloating and diarrhea.

Although there isn't a set gallbladder removal diet, the following tips may help minimize problems with diarrhea after you've had your gallbladder out:

Increase the fiber in your diet. This can help normalize bowel movements. Add soluble fiber, such as oats and barley, to your diet. But be sure to increase the amount of fiber slowly, such as over several weeks, because too much fiber at first can make gas and cramping worse.

Eat smaller, more-frequent meals. This may ensure a better mix with available bile. A healthy meal should include small amounts of lean protein, such as poultry, fish or fat-free dairy, along with vegetables, fruits and whole grains.
You may also try limiting foods that tend to worsen diarrhea, including:

Caffeine
Dairy products
Very sweet foods

Talk with your doctor if your diarrhea doesn't gradually go away or becomes more severe, or if you lose weight and become weak. Your doctor may recommend medicines, such as loperamide (Imodium A-D), which slows down intestinal movement, or medications that decrease the laxative effect of bile, such as cholestyramine (Prevalite). Your doctor may also suggest that you take a multivitamin to compensate for malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Surgery is the only way to cure a hernia. A hernia will not go away on its own. Nowadays, many types of surgical hernia repairs are available.

Fortunately, the gallbladder is an organ that people can live without. Losing it won’t even require a change in diet. Once the gallbladder is removed, bile flows out of the liver through the hepatic ducts into the common bile duct and goes directly into the small intestine, instead of being stored in the gallbladder.

 

Most patients feel able to return to work one to three weeks after a laparoscopy. If you have had a diagnostic laparoscopy or a simple procedure such as sterilization, cholecystectomy or appendectomy you can expect to feel able to go back to work within one week. We will recommend driving after three weeks of surgery.
If you have a waterproof dressing you can take shower bath from very next day, however, Tub bath should be avoided for two weeks after laparoscopic surgery. There are multiple reasons for this: preventing infection, preventing the weakening of the incision line as it becomes wet and soft, and preventing the glue or adhesives holding the incision closed from falling off prematurely.
Most people who have laparoscopic hernia repair surgery are able to go home the same day. Recovery time is about 1 to 2 weeks. You most likely can return to light activity after 1 to 2 weeks. Strenuous exercise should wait until after 4 weeks of recovery.

Laparoscopic surgery is a "minimally invasive" procedure commonly used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike traditional surgery of the intestines where a long incision down the center of the abdomen is required, at World Laparoscopy Hospital laparoscopic surgery requires only small "keyhole" incisions in the abdomen.

 

After having a laparoscopy, there is usually a small amount of discomfort where the instrument was inserted. It is normal to feel tired and sore for a couple of days after the procedure but it is very less compared to open surgery. As with any surgery, there is usually some pain following laparoscopic surgery.
Laparoscopy is a type of surgical procedure that allows a minimal access surgeon to access the inside of the abdomen (tummy) and pelvis without having to make large incisions in the skin. This procedure is also known as keyhole surgery or minimally invasive surgery. It could be major or minor depends upon which surgery was done less pain and bleeding after the operation is much more compared to open surgery. After laparoscopic surgery, there is reduced scarring. by laparoscopy is a good advantage you can consider.
When the prolapse is in its early stages and is mild, it can be treated non-surgically with the help of strengthening exercises and physiotherapy. If the prolapse or the ligaments are torn or the prolapse occurs in a late stage, laparoscopic surgery is indicated. 

At World Laparoscopy Hospital we treat conditions like:

  • Gall Bladder stones
  • Hernia
  • Obesity and Metabolic surgery
  • Anorectal conditions- Piles, fistula & fissures
  • Appendicitis
  • Thyroid
  • Solid Organs Minimal Access Surgery
  • Intestinal Surgery
  • Hysterectomy
  • Ovarian cyst surgery
  • Fibroid surgery
  • Tubal surgeries
  • Nephrectomy
  • TURP
  • Adrenalectomy
  • Axilloscopy
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Cystoscopy
  • Endoscopic procedure including ERCP
  • Minimal Access Surgery for Cancer

Piles are also called haemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are masses, clumps, cushions of tissue in the anal canal - they are full of blood vessels, support tissue, muscle and elastic fibers. Haemorrhoids are classified into two general categories: internal and external.

The treatment options available are as follows:

  • Depending on the diagnosis, the doctor advises if home treatment is all you need or further intervention is required. Lifestyle and dietary modifications such as regular physical exercise, plenty of fluids and a high fibre diet provide symptomatic relief.
  • Surgery: Surgery is used for particularly large piles. Generally, surgery is used when conservative treatment/management is not effective. Sometimes surgery is done on an outpatient basis - the patient goes home after the procedure.
MIPH is defined as a minimally invasive surgical technique in which a band of loose or prolapsed mucosa and submucosa in the rectum is excised, proximal to the piles and disrupted mucosa is fixed by ‘stapled end to end mucosal anastomosis’.

This will ultimately occlude the blood supply to the superior hemorrhoidal artery above the hemorrhoidal tissue, resulting in the retraction of prolapsed mucosa back to its original anatomical position. A special circular stapler known as PPHO3 is used in the anastomosis and the whole maneuver will take around 30–45 minutes.

Endoscopic surgery causes much less pain and patients are mobile within hours after surgery. They are also allowed to resume all activities much earlier and can go back to work within 5-7 days. Another advantage is that both sides can be operated in the same sitting without any extra pain or stay. The cosmetic results are excellent.

 

At World Laparoscopy Hospital

 Two types of surgeries are available for thyroid and parathyroid treatment:

  • Endoscopic surgery
  • Open surgery

At World Laparoscopy Hospital 

The treatment options are:

  • Open appendectomy: The appendix is removed through an incision in the lower right abdomen.
  • Laparoscopic appendectomy: The appendix is removed with instruments placed into small abdominal incisions.

At World Laparoscopy Hospital these are the options for piles treatment:

Haemorrhoidectomy (open surgery of the piles): the excess tissue that is causing the bleeding is surgically removed. This can be done in various ways. It may involve a combination of a local anesthetic and sedation, a spinal anesthetic, or a general anesthetic. This type of surgery is effective in completely removing piles, but is associated with pain for few days.

Minimally Invasive Procedure for Hemorrhoids (MIPH): This technique uses stapler for performing the surgery. It is relatively painless and be done as a day care surgery

Laparoscopy may be used to look for the cause of chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or a pelvic mass. If a problem is found, it often can be treated during the same surgery. Laparoscopy also is used to diagnose and treat the following medical conditions:
  1. Fibroids—Fibroids are growths that form inside the wall of the uterus or outside the uterus. Most fibroids are benign (not cancer), but a very small number are malignant (cancer). Fibroids can cause pain or heavy bleeding. Laparoscopy sometimes can be used to remove them.
  2. Ovarian cyst—Some women have cysts that develop on the ovaries. The cysts often go away without treatment. But if they do not, your ob-gyn may suggest that they are removed with laparoscopy.
  3. Ectopic pregnancy—Laparoscopy may be done to remove an ectopic pregnancy.
  4. Pelvic floor disorders—Laparoscopic surgery can be used to treat urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse.
  5. Endometriosis—If you have signs and symptoms of endometriosis and medications have not helped, a laparoscopy may be recommended. The laparoscope is used to see inside your pelvis. If endometriosis tissue is found, it often can be removed during the same procedure.
  6. Cancer—Some types of cancer can be removed using laparoscopy.
After the laparoscopic surgical procedure, the instruments and most of the gas is removed. The small incisions are closed. You will be moved to the recovery room. You will feel sleepy for a few hours. You may have some nausea from the anesthesia.

If you had outpatient laparoscopic surgery, you will need to stay in the recovery room until you can stand up without help and empty your bladder. You must have someone drive you home. You usually can go home the same day. More complex laparoscopic surgical procedures, such as laparoscopic hysterectomy, may require an overnight stay in the hospital.
An anal fistula is a small channel that can develop between the end of the rectum/anal canal and the skin near the anus. An anal fistula can cause bleeding and discharge when passing stools and can be painful. An anal fistula can occur after surgery to drain a perianal abscess. MAFT (VAAFT) is a major breakthrough treatment option for complex fistulas. VAAFT (The Video-assisted Anal Fistula Treatment) or MAFT (Minimally Invasive Fistula Treatment) are alternatively used terms.
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland in men, placed around the urethra below the urinary bladder. It is not testis as confused by a few. This enlarged gland slowly squeezes on the urethra and decreases the flow of urine. BPH is a normal, aging process for men. In more than 50 % individuals it causes urinary problems and requires treatment. Mostly these problems can be managed by medicines but sometimes surgery is required. Now a day’s prostate surgery is done by endoscopy which is minimally invasive and use of laser make it further safe even in high-risk old age individuals.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a surgery used to treat urinary problems due to an enlarged prostate.

A combined visual and surgical instrument (resectoscope) is inserted through the tip of your penis and into the tube that carries urine from your bladder (urethra). The prostate surrounds the urethra. Using the resectoscope, your doctor trims away excess prostate tissue that's blocking urine flow.

TURP is generally considered an option for men with moderate to severe urinary problems that haven't responded to medication. Traditionally, TURP has been considered the most effective treatment for an enlarged prostate.

A Hernia occurs when the contents of a body cavity protrude out of the membrane in which they are normally contained through a weak spot in a surrounding muscle or connective tissue. Hernias by themselves may or may not produce symptoms as they are asymptomatic and can cause slight to severe pain.

There are various types of hernia namely- Inguinal (direct & indirect), Femoral, umbilical and ventral (Incisional, periumbilical and epigastric)

The term laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy can refer to any of the following three techniques:

  • Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repair.
  • Transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair.
  • Intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair.
Prostate cancer is second most common cancer in males. It is abnormal and unregulated growth of prostatic cells. When it advances and spread to bones and other organs, it may lead to death. In India, due to lack of awareness, most of the cases present at an advance stage. However, even in advance stage, its treatment is quite successful to lead the patient his normal life.

It is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is used for diagnosing and treating problems in the chest. In this procedure, a tiny thoracoscope (camera) is inserted in the chest through the small incisions in the chest wall. The camera enables in transmitting the images of your chest on the monitor to allow the surgeon to perform the procedure effectively.  

 

The amount of pain is different for each person. The pain can be controlled with the help of pain control medications.
 
Nowadays almost all abdominal surgery which in the past was performed by open can be now performed by laparoscopy. Tubal sterilization is one simplest example of a surgery that can be done using laparoscopy. On another side, even radical hysterectomy also can be performed. Laparoscopy also is one of the ways that hysterectomy can be performed. In a laparoscopic hysterectomy, the uterus is detached from inside the body. It can be removed in pieces through small incisions in the abdomen or removed in one piece through the vagina.
Depending on the type and progress of the prolapse, there are surgical & non-surgical treatment options. Non-surgical treatments include physiotherapy to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles to retract the prolapse, changing diet and bowel habits, use of a pessary (a rubber device placed inside the vagina) to give additional support.

Surgery is done to retract the prolapse, repair the torn ligaments and fascia. A synthetic mesh may be used to give additional support. 
Unlike common infections, in prostatitis antibiotics are required for 4 to 6 weeks duration. Analgesics are given for a short period for controlling acute symptoms. Alpha blocker medicines of the prostate are given to increase the penetration of antibiotics into the prostate gland. In chronic or recurrent cases some medicines need to be taken for a long period.

Men are more prone to inguinal hernias than women because of basic differences in anatomy. The area where hernias occur most often has a very different function in men than in women.

 

 

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World Laparoscopy Hospital, Cyber City, Gurugram, NCR Delhi, 122002, India

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