Frequently asked questions about ovarian cyst?

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Prof. Dr. R. K. Mishra

What are ovaries?

The ovaries are a pair of organs within the female the reproductive system. They are found in the pelvis, one on both sides of the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ in which a baby grows. Each ovary is about the size and shape of the almond. The ovaries produce eggs and feminine hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control the way certain cells or organs function.

Every month, during a woman's menstrual cycle, an egg grows inside an ovary. It grows in a sac called a follicle. When an egg matures, the sac breaks available to release the egg. The egg travels through the fallopian tube towards the uterus for fertilization. Then your sac dissolves. The empty sac becomes corpus luteum. Corpus luteum makes hormones that help prepare for the next egg.

The ovaries would be the main supply of the feminine hormones estrogen and progesterone.

These hormones affect:

  1. The way breasts and body hair grow
  2. The woman like physique
  3. The menstrual period
  4. Pregnancy of women

What exactly are ovarian cysts?

A cysts are a fluid or semi-solid filled sac. They are able to form anywhere in the body. Ovarian cysts form in or on the ovaries. The most typical type of ovarian cyst is a functional cyst which develops naturally in ovary.

Functional cysts often form throughout the menstrual cycle.

The 2 types of functional cyst are:

  1. Follicle cysts. These cysts form once the sac doesn't break open to release the egg. Then sac keeps growing. This type of cyst most in women often goes away in One to three months.
  2. Corpus luteum cysts. These cysts form when the sac doesn't dissolve. Instead, the sac seals off after the egg is released. Then fluid accumulates inside. Many of these cysts go away after a few weeks. They are able to grow to almost 4 inches.

Other kinds of ovarian cysts are:

Endometriomas: These cysts form in females who have endometriosis. This issue occurs when tissue that looks and acts like the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. The tissue may affix to the ovary and form a growth. These cysts can be painful during intercourse and during your period.

Cystadenomas: These cysts form from cells around the outer surface of the ovary. They are often filled with a watery fluid or thick, sticky gel. They can become large and hurt.

Dermoid Cyst: These cysts contain various kinds of cells. They might be full of hair, teeth, and other tissues that become part of the cyst. They are able to become large and hurt.

Poly cystic ovaries: These cysts are caused when eggs mature inside the sacs but are not released. The cycle then repeats. The sacs keep growing and many cysts form.

Signs of ovarian cysts?

Many ovarian cysts don't cause symptoms.

Others type of ovarian cyst can cause:

  1. Pressure effect
  2. Abdominal swelling, or pain in the abdomen
  3. Severe Pelvic pain
  4. Dull ache in the back and thighs
  5. Woman might have Problems passing urine
  6. Pain during intercourse
  7. Putting on weight
  8. Pain during menses
  9. Intra abnormal bleeding
  10. Nausea or vomiting
  11. Unusual breast tenderness

How are ovarian cysts is diagnosed?

Gynaecologist can usually find ovarian cysts during routine pelvic exams if it is big. The Gynaecologist may feel the swelling of the cyst around the ovary. When a ovarian cyst is found, tests are carried out to help plan treatment. To diagnose ovarian cyst tests include:

  1. An ultrasound.
  2. A pregnancy test. This test might be given to rule out pregnancy.
  3. Hormone level tests. Hormonal levels might be checked to ascertain if there are hormone-related problems

A blood test is done to find out if the cyst may be cancerous. The test measures an ingredient within the blood called cancer-antigen 125 (CA-125). The quantity of CA-125 is higher with ovarian cancer. But some ovarian cancers don't make enough CA-125 to be detected by the test. Some non cancerous diseases also raise CA-125 levels. Those diseases include uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Non cancerous causes of higher CA-125 are more experienced by women too younger than 35 of age.

Although ovarian cancer is extremely rare in this age group. The CA-125 test is frequently given to women who:

  1. Are over the age of 35
  2. Are at high-risk for ovarian cancer
  3. Have a ovarian cyst that is partly solid

How are ovarian cysts treated?

For those who have a cyst, they can wait and have a second exam in 1 to 3 months. Your Gynaecologist will check to see when the cyst has changed in size. Gynaecologist may want to take away the cyst if you're postmenopausal, or if it:

  1. It Doesn't go away spontaneously after several menstrual cycles
  2. Gets larger with time
  3. Looks odd on the ultrasound
  4. Causes long standing pain

The surgery options are:

Laparoscopy: Done when the cyst is not hugely enlarged and looks benign on the ultrasound. While patient is under general anesthesia, a really small cut is made below or above umbilicus. A small laparoscope that acts like a telescope is defined into abdomen. Then Gynaecologist can remove the cyst.

Laparotomy: Opening the abdomen with big incision is done by Gynaecologist if the cyst is large and could be cancerous. While patient under general anesthesia, larger incisions come in the stomach to remove the cyst. The cysts are then tested for cancer. If it is cancerous, a Gynaecologist may need to remove the ovary and other tissues, such as the uterus. If perhaps one ovary is removed, your body continues to be fertile and can still produce estrogen. Oral contraceptives. Should patient keep forming functional cysts, Gynaecologist may prescribe oral contraceptives to stop patient from ovulating. Should patient don’t ovulate, it is not as likely to create new cysts. Gynaecologist can also use Depo-Provera. It is a hormone that is injected into muscle. Depo-Provera prevents ovulation for a few months at a time.

Is it possible to prevent ovarian cysts?

Actually it is not possible, ovarian cysts can't be prevented. Most of the cyst don't cause symptoms and are not cancerous It subsides by themselves

When are women probably to have maximum chance of getting ovarian cysts?

Most functional ovarian cysts occur during childbearing years. And most of these cysts are not cancerous. Women who are past menopause with ovarian cysts possess a greater risk of ovarian cancer. At any age, if you think you've got a cyst, see your doctor for any pelvic exam.

Is it important to have the follicular cysts?

The ovarian follicle contains the egg that is normally released out of this sac when it is mature enough. After the ovarian sac had ruptured and hang free the egg, it will normally disintegrate. However, when this sac does not rupture it may continue to grow and when it winds up measuring a lot bigger then surgical treatment is necessary. When the follicular cyst breaks then pelvic pain is going to be gone through by the ladies for at least twenty four hours due to the bleeding which irritates the abdominal cavity.

What is the endometrial cyst?

The endometrial tissue is generally found in the uterus but it sometimes it can form in other places in female like away from ovaries. They are produced during the menstrual period by hormone simulation and contain blackish blood which provides them the chocolate cysts. Their rupture results in pelvic pain as all of the material they contain gets in that area and creates adhesions between the local structures.

Is it possible risk of infertility for woman having ovarian cysts?

The endometrial cysts are the only one that may hinder the egg release and pickup in young women. These cysts do not modify the excellence of the egg but they can impact the ovulation and also the follicular development.