The sigmoid colon of the human is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop that averages about 40 cm. in length, and normally lies within the pelvis, but on account of its freedom of movement it is liable to be displaced into the abdominal cavity.
The inner surface of the sigmoid colon is similar to that of the rest of the large intestine. The smooth mucous membrane lining secretes mucus and enzymes, and the lining’s surface cells can absorb fluids. Most of these activities occur, however, higher up in the intestinal tract. The deeper muscle layer of the sigmoid colon is composed of circular muscles and a sheath of longitudinal muscles.
What’s flexible sigmoidoscopy?
Flexible sigmoidoscopy lets your physician analyze the lining of the rectum and a part of the colon by inserting a flexible tube concerning the thickness of the finger into the anus and slowly advancing it to the rectum and lower the main colon.
Should a patient continue his/her present medicines?
Most medications could be carried on as usual. Inform your doctor about medications that you're taking - particularly aspirin products or anticoagulants, or clopidogrel, as well as any allergies you have to medicines.
What groundwork is required?
Your doctor will explain what cleansing routine to use. In general, preparation consists of a couple of enemas prior to the procedure but could include laxatives or dietary modifications as well. However, in some circumstances your doctor might advise you to abandon any special preparation. Because the rectum minimizing colon should be completely empty for that procedure to become accurate, you need to follow your doctor's guidelines carefully.
So what can a patient expect throughout flexible sigmoidoscopy?
Flexible sigmoidoscopy is generally well-tolerated. You may experience a sense of pressure, bloating or cramping throughout the procedure. You'll lie in your corner while your physician advances the sigmoidoscope with the rectum and colon. As your doctor withdraws the instrument, your doctor will carefully examine the liner of the intestine.
What exactly are possible difficulties of flexible sigmoidoscopy?
Flexible sigmoidoscopy and biopsy are safe when performed by physicians who are specially trained and skilled in these endoscopic procedures. Difficulties are rare, but it is essential for you to recognize early signs of possible difficulties. Speak to your physician if you notice extreme abdominal pain, fevers and chills, or rectal bleeding. Note that rectal bleeding may appear several days after the exam.
What if the flexible sigmoidoscopy finds something abnormal?
If your physician sees an area that needs further evaluation, your doctor might take a biopsy to be analyzed. Obtaining a biopsy doesn't cause any pain or discomfort. Biopsies are used to identify many problems, as well as your doctor might order one even when he or she doesn't suspect cancer. If your doctor finds polyps, she or he usually takes a biopsy of these too. Polyps, that are growths from the lining of the colon, vary in size and types. Polyps referred to as "hyperplastic" might not require removal, but benign polyps known as "adenomas" possess a small risk of becoming cancerous. Your doctor will probably request you to have a colonoscopy to remove any large polyps or any small adenomas.
What goes on following a flexible sigmoidoscopy?
Your physician will explain the outcomes for you once the procedure is done. You might feel bloating or some moderate cramping because of the air which was passed to the colon during the evaluation. This can disappear quickly when you pass gas. You should be in a position to eat and resume your normal activities after leaving your physician's office or even the hospital, assuming you did not get any sedative medication.