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                                 Laparoscopic Vasectomy vs Laparoscopic Sterilization in Dogs: A Comparison of Two Techniques
          OriginaL articLe

          Laparoscopic Vasectomy vs Laparoscopic Sterilization in

          Dogs: A Comparison of Two Techniques

          1 Anburaja Mahalingam,  Naveen Kumar,  Swapan Kumar Maiti,  Ashok Kumar Sharma,  Umesh Dimri
          6 Meena Kataria,  Dayamon David Mathew,  V Remya,  A Mohsina
          ABSTRACT                                            Laparoscopic Vasectomy vs Laparoscopic Sterilization in Dogs:
                                                              A Comparison of Two Techniques. World J Lap Surg 2014;7(1):
          Twelve clinically  healthy, adult male dogs randomly equally   7-15.
          divided into two groups (I and II). Animals of both the groups
          received xylazine-ketamine anesthesia. Laparoscopic bilateral   Source of support: Nil
          vasectomy was performed in group I, whereas in animals of   Conflict of interest: None
          group II in additition to vasectomy, spermatic artery-vein plexus
          were clipped with titanium clips at a distance of 1 to 2 cm. Insuff-
          lation of abdominal cavity was achieved by CO  (2 liter/minute)  INTRoDUCTIoN
          at 10 mm Hg pressure gradient. Clinical observations revealed
          no  significant  changes.  Differential  leukocyte  count  (DLC)     Laparoscopic surgery provides a wide field of its extensive
          revealed  significant  neutrophilia  and  comparative  lympho-  application particularly in surgical sterilization of different
          penia on 3rd postoperative in both groups. Significant increase   animal species. Furthermore, high demographic urban and
          (p < 0.05) in plasma alkaline and acid phosphatase level was    industrial area requires an effective animal birth control pro-
          observed on day 3 postoperatively. Indices of oxidative stress viz
          lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase   gram, which can overcome the problem of hospitalization,
          (SOD), reduced glutathione activity and acute phase protein, cerulo-  postoperative complications and the overall cost reduction
          plasmin level in plasma did not revealed any major significant  of operation.  Castration of male dogs by conventional
          changes but indicated that oxidative stress was more in group II   open method have many disadvantages and postoperative
          animals. Plasma cortisol level increased significantly (p < 0.01)
          after operation and testosterone level showed gradual decrease   complications, such as hemorrhage, wound dehiscence, infec-
          (p > 0.05) up to 7th postoperative day in animals of group II. On   tions, maggot infestations and scrotal swellings, etc. In a
          the basis of the parameters studied, it can be concluded that  large scale animal birth control program, the conventional
          capnoperitoneum at 10 mm Hg pressure gradient and CO  at   methods of sterilization requires a long period between
          the flow rate of 2 liter/minute provides optimum visualization   capture of dogs and their release due to the time taken for
          of intra-abdominal organs and found suitable for laparoscopic
          sterilization in male dogs. The laparoscopic vasectomy alone in   the surgical wounds to heal. In this aspect, keyhole surgery
          male dogs was found comparatively quick, less time consuming  or laparoscopic surgery can revolutionize the entire program,
          and can be successfully applied for mass sterilization program.  as it needs only very small surgical wound, which usually
          Oxidative stress in laparoscopic vasectomy (group I) was less   needs no postoperative care or regular dressings. The lapa-
          as compared to other group.
                                                              roscopic surgery has advantages, like minimal invasiveness
          Keywords: Male dogs, Laparoscopic vasectomy, Sterilization,   with maximum visibility, shorter surgical time, decreased
          Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Catalase, Superoxide dismu -

          tase, Reduced glutathione, Acute phase proteins.    postoperative discomfort and pain, less incidences of infec-
                                                              tion, uncomplicated healing with minimal scarring and
          How to cite this article: Mahalingam A, Kumar N, Maiti SK,                 2
          Sharma AK, Dimri U, Kataria M, Mathew DD, Remya V, Mohsina A.     minimal surgical morbidity.  It also avoids postoperative
                                                              complications, such as wound dehiscence, herniation, etc.

            1 Postgraduate Scholar,  2-4,6 Principal Scientist    and reduces the surgical stress to animal as well as recurring
            5 Head,  7-9 PhD Scholar                          cost of each surgery. Therefore, the present study was under-
            1-4,7-9 Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute   taken to compare laparoscopic vasectomy and laparoscopic
            Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India                   sterilization, i.e. vasectomy plus clipping of spermatic artery
            5 Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute,   vein plexus, using clinical, hematobiochemical parameters
            Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India                   and parameters related to stress.
            6 Division of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Indian Veterinary
            Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
                                                              MATeRIALS AND MeThoDS
            Corresponding Author: Naveen Kumar, Principal Scientist
            Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-   The study was conducted on 12 clinically healthy, adult
            243122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, Phone: 91-581 2302870   male dogs having body weights of 13.0 to 18.5 kg (15.10
            Fax: 91-581 2303284, e-mail:
                                                              ± 0.68) and of age 20 to 28 months (24.57 ± 1.56). The
          World Journal of Laparoscopic Surgery, January-April 2014;7(1):7-15                                 7
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