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Step-by-Step Laparoscopic Salpingo-oophorectomy: Expert Techniques for Recurrent Endometrioma Management
Gnae / Jun 22nd, 2024 9:16 am     A+ | a-

Advanced Laparoscopic Salpingo-oophorectomy: In-Depth Video Tutorial for Recurrent Endometrioma Cases


Laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure often performed to treat various gynecological conditions, including endometriomas. Endometriomas, also known as ovarian endometriotic cysts, are a type of ovarian cyst formed when endometrial tissue grows in the ovaries. These cysts can cause significant pain, infertility, and other complications. In cases of recurrent endometrioma, where traditional treatments have failed or are unsuitable, advanced laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy becomes a crucial intervention.

Understanding Recurrent Endometrioma

Endometriosis is a chronic condition characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus, leading to inflammation, scarring, and cyst formation. Endometriomas are particularly troublesome as they can recur even after initial surgical removal. Recurrent endometrioma poses a challenge due to its tendency to return and the complexity of managing adhesions and scarring from previous surgeries. Comprehensive management involves both medical and surgical approaches, with the latter being reserved for severe cases or those unresponsive to medical therapy.

Indications for Advanced Laparoscopic Salpingo-oophorectomy

The decision to perform a salpingo-oophorectomy, the removal of one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes, is not taken lightly. It is typically indicated in the following scenarios:

1. Severe Recurrent Endometrioma: When cysts persist or recur despite medical treatment and less invasive surgical interventions.
2. Pain Management: Chronic pelvic pain unresponsive to other treatments.
3. Infertility: When endometriomas interfere with fertility and other treatments have failed.
4. Risk of Malignancy: Suspicion of malignant transformation in an endometrioma.
5. Other Complications: Such as significant adhesions causing obstruction or dysfunction of nearby organs.

Preoperative Preparation

Patient Evaluation:
- Detailed History and Examination: A thorough history of symptoms, previous treatments, and surgeries is essential.
- Imaging: Transvaginal ultrasound and MRI are pivotal in assessing the extent of the disease and planning the surgery.
- Blood Tests: To evaluate overall health and rule out other conditions.
- Counseling: Discussing the risks, benefits, and potential outcomes, including the impact on fertility and hormonal balance, is crucial.

Surgical Planning:
- Multidisciplinary Approach: Involving gynecologists, reproductive specialists, and pain management experts.
- Advanced Techniques: Planning for possible complications and ensuring the availability of advanced laparoscopic equipment and expertise.

Surgical Technique

1. Patient Positioning and Preparation:
- Anesthesia: General anesthesia is administered.
- Positioning: The patient is placed in the lithotomy position with slight Trendelenburg tilt to enhance pelvic access.
- Aseptic Preparation: Standard aseptic techniques to prepare the surgical site.

2. Port Placement:
- Primary Trocar: Typically, a 10-12mm trocar is placed infraumbilically for the laparoscope.
- Secondary Ports: Additional 5mm trocars are placed in the lower abdomen under direct vision to allow for the manipulation of instruments.

3. Inspection and Adhesiolysis:
- Initial Inspection: Thorough exploration of the pelvic cavity to assess the extent of disease.
- Adhesiolysis: Careful dissection of adhesions to free the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

4. Ovarian Cystectomy:
- Cyst Aspiration: To reduce the size of large endometriomas and facilitate handling.
- Cyst Wall Excision: Meticulous dissection to remove the cyst wall while preserving as much normal ovarian tissue as possible.

5. Salpingo-oophorectomy:
- Isolation: Identification and isolation of the ovary and fallopian tube.
- Vascular Control: Bipolar coagulation or advanced energy devices to control the blood supply.
- Dissection and Removal: Careful dissection and removal of the ovary and tube, ensuring complete excision of the endometriotic tissue.

6. Hemostasis and Inspection:
- Hemostasis: Ensuring complete hemostasis to prevent postoperative bleeding.
- Final Inspection: Reevaluation of the pelvic cavity to check for residual disease and ensure all endometriotic tissue is removed.

7. Closure:
- Port Site Closure: Proper closure of port sites to prevent hernias.
- Postoperative Care: Detailed instructions for postoperative care and follow-up.

Postoperative Management

Immediate Postoperative Care:
- Monitoring: Vital signs, pain management, and early mobilization.
- Complications: Watch for signs of infection, bleeding, or thromboembolic events.

Long-term Follow-up:
- Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): If both ovaries are removed, discussing the need for HRT to manage menopausal symptoms.
- Fertility Counseling: Referral to reproductive specialists if future fertility is a concern.
- Pain Management: Long-term pain management strategies, including physical therapy and pain clinics.


Advanced laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy for recurrent endometrioma is a complex but essential procedure for patients with refractory disease. The minimally invasive approach offers numerous benefits, including reduced pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times. However, the procedure requires a high level of expertise and meticulous surgical technique to manage the intricate anatomy and extensive adhesions often present in these cases. With careful preoperative planning, skilled surgical execution, and comprehensive postoperative care, patients can achieve significant symptom relief and improved quality of life. This in-depth video tutorial aims to provide healthcare professionals with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform this advanced procedure successfully.
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