1. Which type of vision is best in Minimal Access Surgery with the shadow telescope available for three-dimensional feel?
a) Best contrast of shadow poor illumination
b) Best illumination mild contrast of shadow
c) Best illumination best contrast of shadow.
d) No shadow best illumination


2. Which surgical procedures are best indicated for this paraesophageal hernia?
a) Thoracoscopic Heller myotomy
b) Laparoscopic esophagectomy
c) Endoscopic diverticulectomy
d) Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair


3. A 72 year old man is seen in the emergency room with a four day history of lower abdominal pain. The pain came on and has been constantly present, though worsening, in an area just below McBurney's point in the right lower quadrant on exam. Abdomen is markedly tender there, but has no rebound and not very tender elsewhere. He has a 38.2 fever, and WBC is at 11,000. What should be the ideal treatment.
a) admit to the hospital and observe
b) perform appendectomy through Rocky-Davis incision
c) perform diagnostic laparoscopy
d) administer laxatives and observe


4. Where should Epigastric port should be placed in relation to from falciform ligament?
In ligament
Below ligament


5. The incidence of trocar-induced visceral injuries is approximately

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